Flow State

O que é e como surgiu?

 

Flow State é um estado psicológico de consciência alterada. Descrito e criado por Dr. Csikszentmihalyi (1975) e substanciado por outros estudiosos em diferentes áreas, incluindo trabalho, educação, religião e esportes. Sua denominação “flow” é utilizada porque, durante o processo de estudo, diversas respostas à entrevistas eram explicadas como: “é como se a água me carregasse ao longo do processo”.

 

Portanto, quando está em flow, a pessoa se torna totalmente envolvida em uma atividade e imerge em um número de características positivas, incluindo liberdade de autoconsciência e grande prazer de execução. É um estado instrínseco acompanhado por uma ordem de consciência, onde se verificam alguns padrões: claridade de metas, conhecimento da performance, completa concentração, sentimentos de controle e sentimentos de estar em completa harmonia com a performance. Jackson e Roberts (1992) criaram a hipótese de que flow é um processo psicológico presente em extremas performances e, ao examinar atletas, encontraram correlações e verificaram comportamentos padrões que trouxeram suporte à ideia.

 

Em adendo, análises quantitativas mostraram que atletas de excelente performances estavam associados às etapas descritas e às características do Flow State.

 

Entender como o flow foi experienciado por atletas, executivos, músicos e criativos em geral foi uma grande questão para desenvolver a construção do Flow State como é atualmente. Seus estudos hoje impactam diversas áreas no mundo, inclusive a do autoconhecimento.

 

Componentes

 

Jeanne Nakamura e Csíkszentmihályi identificaram os seguintes fatores ao compactar as experiências de flow em seus estudos:

 

  1. Intensa concentração no momento presente
  2. Junção da ação com a atenção ao ambiente
  3. Perda da autoconsciência
  4. Senso de controle pessoal ou momentâneo sobre a situação ou atividade
  5. Distorção da percepção do tempo onde a noção subjetiva do tempo é alterada
  6. Experiência da atividade é instrínsecamente valiosa

 

Esses aspectos podem aparecer independentemente entre sí, mas somente a combinação entre todos é que constitui Flow State. Além disso, Kendra Cherry, referência em psicologia, referenciou outros 3 componentes que Csíkszentmihályi lista como sendo parte da experiência de flow:

 

  1. Feedback imediato
  2. Sentimento de que há potencial para o sucesso momentâneo
  3. Sentir-se tão unido à experiência que outras necessidades tornam-se negligenciadas

 

Mecanismos

 

A cada instante, há uma grande quantia de informação disponível para cada indivíduo. E psicólogos descobriram que a mente pode processar uma quantia delimitada de informação ao mesmo tempo. De acordo com Csikszentmihályi’s (2004, em seu TED talk), esse número é cerca de 110 bits de informação por segundo. Pode parecer uma grande quantia de informação, mas simples tarefas diárias requerem uma grande quantia desse limite. Somente ao processar e ouvir a fala de outra pessoa demanda cerca de 60 bits de informação por segundo. É por isso que, ao ter uma conversa, é impossível manter a atenção por muito tempo em mais de 2 pessoas falando juntas.

 

Na maior parte, as pessoas são livres para decidir onde querem focar sua atenção (exceto por sentimentos corporais básicos, como fome e dor, que são inatos). No entanto, quando se está em flow state, elas estão completamente engajadas a executar uma tarefa de cada vez, sem fazer a decisão consciente sobre o que fazer, perdem a atenção em todas as outras coisas: tempo, pessoas, distrações e até mesmo necessidades básicas corporais. Isso ocorre porque a atenção de uma pessoa está em executar uma tarefa de cada vez, não há mais atenção para ser realocada.

 

Medição

 

A principal maneira de medir as experiências de flow é através de “escalas padronizadas”.

As escalas desenvolvidas por Jackson e Eklund são as mais comumente usadas em pesquisas. Em sua grande parte porque são consistentes com a definição de flow (tanto um estado quanto um traço) estabelecidas por Csíkszentmihályi’s. Jackson e Eklund criaram duas escalas que provaram ser psicometricamente válidas: a escala Flow State-2 (que mede flow como um estado) e escala de disposição Flow State-2 (desenhada para medir o flow como um traço, ou como um traço de domínio específico).

 

Ambas as escalas possuem entrevistas pontuadas de 0 a 5 e segmentadas ao objetivo, onde se constroi a escala através de padrões qualitativos.

 

Condições para o Flow  State

 

Como dito no início, o estado de flow pode ser atingido em qualquer atividade com propósitos intrínsecos (alinhados ao indivíduo). É importante ressaltar que atividades passivas, como assistir TV ou tomar banho não geram flow state.

 

Segundo a teoria, há três condições que devem ser aceitas para entrar em flow state:

 

  1. O indivíduo deve estar envolvido na atividade com metas e progresso esclarecidos. Isso adiciona estrutura e direção à atividade. (O que preciso para atingir isso? O que preciso para garantir o resultado disso?)
  2. A atividade deve ter clado e imediato feedback. Isso auxilia a pessoa à negociar quaisquer demandas urgentes e permite-as a ajustar sua performance para manter o estado de flow.
  3. Deve haver um ótimo balanço entre os desafios percebidos da atividade e suas habilidades suficientes para executar para manter o estado de fluxo.

 

Baseado nestas 3 condições, foi elaborado um gráfico, que demonstra exatamente o equilíbrio necessário para se atingir o flow state:

 

Pela literatura, posteriormente, alguns elementos e condições presentes nesta teoria apresentada acima foram percebidos como míopes. Uma delas é que um estudo descobriu que situações com pouco desafio que foram ultrapassadas pela habilidade foram associadas à relaxamento e felicidade, o que, via gráfico, se diz contrário ao flow state.

A partir disso, Schaffer (2013), propôs 7 condições para o flow state (que são as usadas atualmente):

 

  1. Saber o que fazer
  2. Saber como fazer
  3. Saber o quão bem está executando
  4. Saber para onde ir (caso haja necessidade)
  5. Desafios claramente percebidos
  6. Habilidades claramente percebidas
  7. Liberdade de distrações.

 

Aplicações

 

Em uma pesquisa de 10 anos, conduzida pela McKinsey, executivos de elite reportaram ser 5 vezes mais produtivos enquanto em flow. Isso quer dizer que você pode ter uma segunda-feira em flow, e ainda assim terá feito muito mais que a média das pessoas fazem em uma semana. De acordo com os mesmos pesquisadores, se aumentássemos o tempo despendido em flow entre 15-20%, a produtividade geral aumentaria em dobro.

 

No centro do flow state, há uma cascata extremamente complexa de neuroquímicos, os quais, quando combinados, atingem o que muitas organizações falham em conseguir: motivação intrínseca. Em flow, o cérebro libera norepinefrina, dopamina, endorfina, anandamida e serotonina. Todas as 5 afetam a performance. Norepinefrina e dopamina aumentam o foco. Endorfina bloqueia a dor. Anandamida promove conexões laterais e gera mais insights que sessões de brainstorming. E serotonina, o químico famoso utilizado pelo “Prozac”, que costuma criar laços entre times mais poderosos que os mais bem intencionados escritórios.

 

Mas realmente entender cada um desses químicos tão poderosos requerem uma atenção um pouco maior para seu impacto em motivação, aprendizado e criatividade. Vamos estudar um a um:

 

Motivação: cada um desses 5 químicos são as maiores recompensas que um cérebro pode produzir, e o estado de flow state é uma das poucas experiências que produz todos ao mesmo tempo. Isso faz com que esse estado seja um dos mais prazerosos, com significado e, literalmente, viciante.

 

Igualmente crítico para ambientes em rápida mudança é a nossa habilidade de aprender rápido. Aqui, também, flow pode ajudar. Quanto maior o número de neuroquímicos durante uma experiência, maior será a chance de ser movido à memórias de longo prazo. Enquanto o flow produz um dos mais potentes “drinks” de neuroquímicos, o estado tem um incrível impacto em nossas habilidades em conquistar novos aprendizados e conhecimento. A DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency), por exemplo, descobriu que snipers treinados em estado de flow aprenderam 230% mais rápido que o normal. Cientistas da ABM (Advanced Brain Monitoring), em paralelo, executaram um estudo que descobriu que o flow corta em 50% o tempo para se treinar atiradores ao nível expert.

 

O impacto do flow na criatividade pode ser, também, um dos principais papeis em um nível acelerado de informações que recebemos no dia-a-dia. De acordo com John Hagel, fundador da Deloitte’s Center for the Edge: “O flow permite que absorva essa informação, sintetize e integre. Isso deriva um processo criativo. Enquanto todo mundo é conduzido à distração, pessoas em flow estão adaptando – eles usam o estado para aumentar a performance ao próximo nível.”

Isso acontece porque a criatividade é re-combinatória – o produto de ideias inovadoras surgindo de pensamentos antigos e dando vida a algo perfeitamente novo. Em flow, a norepinefrina e dopamina ajudam a remover distrações e absorver maior quantidade de informação (neste caso, ideias inovadoras). Esses mesmos químicos auxiliam a aumentar o reconhecimento de padrões, permitindo fazer conexões cerebrais mais rápidas entre ideias. Anandamida, no entanto, aumenta o pensamento lateral, produzindo conexões entre ideias profundas e suas interações.

Ao executar um aprendizado acelerado, com motivação e criatividade, o flow amplia as 3 competências requeridas para que se façam uma mudança radical. Ainda assim, esses fatores não surgem sem um investimento sério. Re-estruturar empresas ao redor de flow significa radicalmente alterar seu DNA, alterando ênfase em mecanismos eficientes para o engajamento profundo. Não são maioria dos negócios que estão prontos para esse desafio.

Esse pode ser um dos fatores que posicionará as empresas à diante no futuro.

 

É importante lembrar que esses fatores não possuem benefícios somente para o business, mas também para cada pessoa em constante acesso à esse estado.

 

Gatilhos para o Flow State

 

No livro The Rise of Superman, de Steven Kotler, estudioso do flow state, uma de suas melhores contribuições são os gatilhos específicos que auxiliam a entrar nesse estado de consciência. Entre eles estão:

 

1) Foco

 

“Flow segue o foco. O estado somente pode aparecer quando toda a sua atenção está focada no aqui, agora. A evolução moldou o que se conhece hoje como cerca de 20 gatilhos. São gatilhos que trazem a atenção para o aqui e o agora: respiração, olhar, etc… Pessoas que vivem grande quantidade e permanecem por bastante tempo em flow modaram suas vidas ao redor desses gatilhos. O engraçado é que são realmente óbvios, e sabemos de todos eles porque o corpo é moldado ao redor do flow, ao redor da busca da melhor performance.”

 

2) Risco

 

A aplicação da imaginação única é uma simples definição de criatividade – é tudo sobre tomar chances mentais. – Steven Kotler

 

  • Atletas extremos frequentemente ficam cara a cara com risco
  • Sempre que um surfista entra em uma onda há o risco de uma queda
  • Sempre que um skateboarder entra em uma mega rampa, há a possibilidade de ossos quebrados.

Trabalho criativo proporciona essa oportunidade para o risco. Com tudo que se cria, há sempre a chance de que alguém não goste. Isso não é algo ruim uma vez que é um pré-requisito para o flow.

 

3) Ambiente Rico

 

Parte da razão que pessoas criativas e atletas extremos entram em flow com regularidade é porque seu ambiente promove esse fator.

 

  • Quando um surfista entra no mar, ele sabe que há dois dias atrás e dois dias em diante não terão as mesmas ondas, é uma chance única.
  • Quando um escritor senta para escrever, ele nunca sabe o que irá aparecer na página em branco.

 

A inovação é moldada pelo ambiente. Se você entender em como otimizar o ambiente à sua otimização de performance e criatividade, entrará em flow com mais facilidade.

 

4) Profundo contato com os sentidos

 

Kotler descreve esse contato como: “Atenção à todo seu corpo.” Em outras palavras, prestar atenção em todos os seus sentidos. Escute o som dos seus dedos no teclado, sinta seu batimento cardíaco, preste atenção à sua respiração. Considere como um hábito.

 

5) Claridade

 

Saber exatamente o que quer conquistar. Ter metas, alcançáveis e objetivos claros.

 

6) Feedback Imediato

 

Atletas extremos tem esse feedback como mantra, ou estão sob a corda, ou cairão de um penhasco.

 

Se está criando algo, peça feedbacks imediatos, estruturados e a pessoas diferentes.

 

7) Equilíbrio entre habilidade/desafio

 

Há um certo ponto, quando as coisas tornam-se muito fáceis para você, não mais resultam em flow. Flow aparece entre a linha do tédio e ansiedade. Caso chegue a esses níveis, altere seu escopo de desafio ou melhore suas habilidades.

 

Hackeando o Flow State

 

1) Eliminar fontes de distração

 

  • Emails
  • Mensagens de texto, whatsapp e etc…
  • Telefonemas
  • Browsing

 

Na maioria das vezes, as ações que nos previnem de entrar no estado de fluxo. Um tweet, post, email e jogamos no lixo toda a nossa fluidez e criatividade do momento.

 

2) Entenda sua criatividade e explique seu desafio a outras pessoas

 

Quando não há ideia de por onde começar, as palavras de outras pessoas podem, pelo menos, escrever algo no papel. Quando tiver algo no papel, você já não está na página em branco.

 

3) Ferramentas / Headphones

 

Se o flow é seguido de foco, faria total sentido utilizar de ferramentas que auxiliam a entrar nesse estado. Entre elas estão:

 

  1. F11.
  2. Pomodoro.
  3. StayFocusd.

 

Ou quaisquer ferramentas que evitem com que entre em fontes de distração.

 

Se está em um ambiente com barulho, headphones fazem extrema diferença. E, além disso, o estilo de música, mais ainda. O ideal são músicas sem vocal, instrumentais, progressivas e estimulantes.

 

Para isso, compus uma playlist no Spotify, caso queira acessar.

 

4) Uma tarefa por vez

 

Se está checando emails, cheque emails. Nada mais. Se está escrevendo, somente escreva. Se está programando, programe.

 

E finalmente…

 

Utilize do flow em todas as suas atividades que exigem progresso. Exercícios, trabalho, estudo, etc…

 

Entenda a como utilizá-lo em cada ação do cotidiano. É provado que pessoas que despendem maior tempo em flow são as mais felizes.

 

Ao entender sobre o processo e dominar os gatilhos e as estruturas por trás do estado, é possível aumentar sua qualidade de vida em grande quantidade.

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